Periodontal surgical therapy has identical goals as non-surgical therapy. Periodontal surgery may be indicated when periodontal conditions remained unsolved after non-surgical therapy or when more advanced/aggressive diseases require surgical approach. Sometimes, surgical therapy may also be called for to facilitate restorative or orthodontic works in multidisciplinary cases.
Hard/bone tissue (osseous) therapy:
There are two primary treatment modalities in this category:
Soft tissue therapy:
Oral hard or soft tissue biopsy for pathologic diagnosis.